What are the major components of physical fitness?

Physical fitness

The state of being mentally, or physically fit, and medically healthy is called fitness. Physical fitness is an ability to carry out day-to-day activities without fatigue, and without any injury to maintain the required level of energy to perform daily tasks. Physical fitness is one of the most important factors to a healthy body. It is the foundation, or a basement to the healthy body. Because without physical fitness no one can imagine about his or her proper healthy body. Physically fit can be gained by proper nutrition, and physical exercise. Therefore, physical exercise and proper nutrition are complementary factors to each other.

There are major five components out of eleven of physical fitness and they are often used world-wide at fitness centers to make people mentally and physically healthy. If you follow these five components in your life you would be fit definitely.

1.  Cardiovascular endurance – Jogging, cycling and swimming are the best for cardiovascular endurance. It is best for the heart and lungs.

2.  Flexibility – Flexibility is an ability to bend, or move, or motion of the body joints. Stretching muscles is the best way for flexibility. It is best for the joint.

3.  Muscular endurance – The length of time a muscle can move a weight for an period of time. Cycling, step machines, and elliptical machines are the best for muscular endurance. It is for anti-fatigue exercise.

4.  Body composition – The ration of Fat and fat-free mass in human body is called body composition. The muscle, bones, and organ of a human body have lower percentage of body fat and a higher percentage of fat-free mass, if that body is healthy.

5.  Muscular strength – It means how much weight a muscle can move. Bench press, leg press etc. are best exercise for muscular strength. Due to this exercise can produce force.

What are the rest of the components of physical fitness?

1.  Agility – Agility is an ability to move under control. It can be achieved in a normal way just like walking to the market, shop, or during car loading/downloading, driving etc.

2.  Balance – As balance diet is the most important, the balance exercise is also mandatory. The American Heart Association has suggested that at least 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise or vigorous exercise of 75 minutes per week is necessary. Core strengthening will perform better balance, posture, and stability. Due to strong core can reduce risk of injury, and reduce low back pain. Strong core muscles help in swinging a golf iron, in water skis, in the skating, in daily activities e.g. in picking up child, working in the garden, and carrying something. Therefore, you have to know that what actually the core is. Core is the muscle groups which include the rectus abdominals, erector spinae (low back), internal and external obliques (on the sides), and transverse abdominis (the deepest muscle layer of the abdominals). All these muscles mentioned above together help in trunk rotation, in leaning forward as well as back, and in maintaining good posture. Therefore, it is very important to perform at least weekly strengthening, stretching of these muscle groups as well.

3.  Power – The meaning of power is an ability to do something, or to overcome resistance in the shortest period of time, it comes from training or from physical and mental exercise. Power training boosts strength or power needed for daily tasks. Power is a combination of speed and strength. The aim of power training is to increasing power, which can be gained by the following exercises:

(a)  Exercises the muscles of the abdomen, hips, front thighs, and buttocks.

(b)  Exercises the muscles of the back, back thighs, and buttocks.

(c)  Exercises the muscles of the back upper arms, chest, and shoulders.

4.  Reaction time – Reaction time is the time of response or the amount of time that takes places between when we perceive something to when we respond to it. It is also an ability to detect, process, and respond, or the amount of time to initiate an action. Reaction time can be improved through aerobic based exercise. It helps to increase heart rate and improves blood circulation to brain. Due to increment of blood circulation to the brain, you are able to process information faster and more accurately, it causes improvement in reaction times.

5.  Speed – The meaning of speed is how fast a distance can be traveled in, whether it is the whole body or just a part of the body such as the foot. Speed can be defined as the ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly to grab or throw. Speed training keeps our muscles through a fuller range of motion, improving flexibility. Agility, balance, coordination, speed and power work together at a time. Movement speed requires good strength and power, but too much body weight and air resistance can affect the speed. The following tips are useful to improve speed:

(a)  Weight loss.

(b)  Running in daily basis.

(c)  Swimming in weekly basis.

(d)  Cycling in weekly basis.

5.  Coordination – A good sense of proprioception (awareness of the position and movement of the body) can improve your balance and coordination and physical capabilities. A good sense of proprioception can improve your day-to-day coordination which saves human beings from accidents. We can train our body’s ability to read proprioceptive signals through exercises. More than 50% of balance and coordination ability can be improved through proprioceptive training.